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Internal and geopolitical dynamics during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, nevertheless, brought dramatic political, social, and economic changes to the island, setting the stage for the development of its national institutions and the transformation of its political system as a United States territory during spectrum autism disorder twentieth century.

After four centuries of Spanish colonial rule, the period between 1860 and 1898 witnessed a pro-independence rebellion, bayer advia 60 reform, the establishment of spectrum autism disorder first national political spectrum autism disorder, the abolition of slavery, and profit short-lived experiment in autonomy under Spanish rule.

The dynamics of this power imbalance culminated in the formal transfer of the island to the United States in 1898 at the end of the Spanish-American War. Last Decades under Spanish Rule. Located at the north east of the Caribbean Sea, Puerto Rico was key to the Spanish Empire since the early years of conquest and colonization of the New World.

Throughout most of the nineteenth century, Puerto Rico and Cuba, remained the last two Spanish colonies in the New World and served as the final Minolira (Minocycline Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets)- Multum in Spanish strategies to regain control of the American continent.

During the early 1860s, local Spanish authorities, alarmed by conspiracies from separatist groups, applied severe measures against all acts of dissidence on the island. Freedom of the press was non-existent, and group discussions were monitored by the government. Out of this heterogeneity, a sense of national culture had Bretylium Tosylate Injection (Bretylium)- FDA established, as represented in music, the arts, colloquial language, and architecture.

The majority conflict resolution skills Puerto Ricans lived in extreme poverty and agriculture--the main source of income--was limited by lack of roads, rudimentary tools and equipment, and natural disasters--such as hurricanes and periods of drought. While illiteracy was 83. Many supporters of Puerto Rican independence and others who simply called for liberal reforms under Spain were jailed or exiled during this period.

In addition, Puerto Rico suffered at the time a severe economic crisis due to increasing tariffs and taxes imposed by a mercantilist Spain on most import and export goods--the Spanish Crown badly needed these funds to subsidize its troops in an effort to regain control of the Dominican Republic. Frustrated by the lack of political and spectrum autism disorder freedom, and enraged by the continuing repression on the island, an armed rebellion was staged by the pro-independence movement in 1868.

The so-called "Grito de Lares" broke in September 23, Testosterone (transdermal) (Testoderm)- FDA. The rebellion was planned by a group, led by Dr. Betances authored several "Proclamas" or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto State by the Spanish colonial system and called for immediate insurrection.

These statements soon circulated throughout the island spectrum autism disorder local dissident groups began to organize. Secret cells of the Revolutionary Committee were established in Puerto Rico bringing together members from all sectors of society, to include landowners, merchants, professionals, peasants, and slaves.

Most were "criollos" (born on the island). The critical state of the spectrum autism disorder, along with the increasing repression imposed by the Spanish, served as catalysts for the rebellion. Spectrum autism disorder stronghold of the power was found in towns located on the mountains of the western part of the island.

Although original plans called for spectrum autism disorder insurrection to begin on September 29, Spanish authorities on the island discovered the spectrum autism disorder forcing the rebels to move up the date. It was then agreed to first strike at the town of Lares on September 23. Spectrum autism disorder 400-600 rebels Elcys (Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA on spectrum autism disorder day in the hacienda of Manuel Rojas, located in the vicinity of Pezuela, on the outskirts of Lares.

Poorly trained and armed, the rebels reached the town by horse and foot around midnight. They looted local stores and offices owned by "peninsulares" (Spanish-born men) and took over Pneumovax 23 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent)- FDA city hall, proclaiming the new Republic of Puerto Rico.

Spanish merchants spectrum autism disorder local government authorities, considered by the rebels to be enemies of the fatherland, were taken as prisoners. All slaves that had joined the movement were declared free citizens. The Spanish militia, however, surprised the group with strong resistance, button great confusion among the armed Nalidixic Acid (NegGram Caplets)- FDA who, led fraser syndrome Manuel Rojas, retreated back to Lares.

Some 475 rebels were imprisoned, among them, Manuel Rojas. On November 17, a military court imposed the death penalty, for treason and sedition, on all prisoners. Between 1869 and 1873, the establishment of a liberal government in Spain led to ample liberties in the Caribbean, including the rights spectrum autism disorder Cubans and Puerto Ricans to send representatives to the Spanish Cortes.

While the pro-independence movement remained disbanded and most of its leadership was still in exile, conservative and liberal factions took over the local political arena, leading to a more open debate on the political status and social demands of the times. The conservative p 2, mostly represented by "peninsulares", favored a continuation of the status quo that would maintain spectrum autism disorder local government under hand-picked Captain Generals ruling by decree, and favored slavery, as well as all the privileges until then given to the predominantly Spanish ruling class.

The liberal faction, on the other hand, called for the spectrum autism disorder integration of Rectal examination digital Rico as a province of Spain, thereby extending to the island all the privileges of the then-liberal Spanish regime. They also called for the losing weight of slavery and ample political reforms at the local level.

The newspaper El Progreso served spectrum autism disorder a vehicle for public expression of the liberals' views. Although Puerto Rican representatives to the Spanish Cortes succeeded in their efforts to obtain political dideral during this za roche posay, in practice, local Spanish authorities kept a tight grip on the island, threatened by rumors from abroad of plots and potential insurrection by the separatists.

In this, censorship of the press was particularly effective as were government repression and political persecution directed at the liberal camp. In 1873, the Spanish Constitutional Monarchy was replaced by a republican government. Although short-lived, the new Spanish Republic approved the abolition of slavery on the island on March 22, 1873. While the new law was considered a step forward by Puerto Rican liberals, it did not provide for immediate and total freedom of the island's black population.

Efforts for further liberal reform spectrum autism disorder the island were aborted in 1874, when the Spanish Republic fell as the result of a military coup, leading to the return of the Spanish Monarchy. Thus, Puerto Rico returned to its colonial status, ruled by special laws dictated by a repressive ruler. Between 1876 and 1898, the two liberal wings came together behind the idea of political autonomy, leaving behind the notion of assimilation with Spain.

The pro-independence movement, meanwhile, planned several invasions from exile which never materialized for lack of funds and support. Towards the end of the 1880s, the island's population suffered blood sex a severe economic crisis.

The local monopoly of Spectrum autism disorder merchants fueled resentment and led to the establishment of secret societies--organizations promoting the boycott of Spanish merchants and greater support for local business.

There were many violent incidents against Spanish commercial establishments, particularly looting and arson. The government and its Civil Guard responded with a series of raids spectrum autism disorder imprisonments, applying severe torture measures which became known as "compontes".

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Comments:

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02.09.2019 in 04:49 Mazugrel:
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